flora of Kyrgyzstan is rich and varied due to the geographical location
of the country. The habitats of many different plant species overlap
here, and it is quite possible to find Mediterranean wild vines growing
alongside the Adonis from the Himalayas and other plants of Turanian
and Indo - Himalayan groups. There are about 500,000 species of plants
in the world and about 3,500 of them grow in Kyrgyzstan. Endemic wild
plants are found in Kyrgyzstan. Central Asian flora evolved mainly from
the tertiary (palaearctic) flora and includes walnut, barberry, rose,
maple, currant, apple tree, pear tree, juniper, fir and others.
Arslanbob, the world largest natural nuciferous
forest, is a source of particular pride to the Kyrgyz. Pears, walnuts,
pistachios, almonds, peaches and other plants grow in this unique
forest. The walnut tree is especially valued. It derives from the
Juglandaceae family. "Juglans" is formed from the Latin words Juvis and
clans, and means "Jupiter's acorn". The common long-held belief is that
it was introduced to Europe and Russia from Greece, supposedly its
native habitat. In fact the walnut tree originates from Southern
Kyrgyzstan and was brought to Greece during the campaigns of Alexander
the Great. The biochemical structure divides the walnut into two
groups: high-oil walnuts, which contain 70% oil, and high-protein
walnuts, which are recommended for diabetic patients. The walnuts also
have a high iodine concentration. The pistachio tree is also very
valuable. Its fruits are nutritious and healing, and pistachio dyes
used in dyeing fabrics derive from its galls or gum accumulations.
Kyrgyzstan is rich in herbs. During the Soviet
period Kyrgyzstan was the main supplier of certain raw materials for
the medical industry. One such was ephedra (up to 90-93% came from
here), known to locals as chekende. Ephedra grows to a large bush and
is at home not only on the desert plains, but also on the mountain
slopes, preferring stony soil. In the autumn it is covered with orange
cones and resembles the decorated fir-tree. Ephedra is the raw material
for ephedrine, a very valuable medicine. Annually 1000 tons of Ephedra
are stored in the republic.
Kyrgyzstan is the land of origin of the tulip.
Holland is commonly known as the tulip state but the original tulip
state is in fact Kyrgyzstan. There are eighty types of tulip in the
world, seventy of which are grown in Central Asia. Twenty-two types of
tulips can be found in Kyrgyzstan, eight of which are very rare.
tulip. This plant with small yellow flowers can be found on the damp
moss-grown mountain slopes. The very early flower is sometimes white.
They say that human happiness is hidden in these flowers.
Grage's tulip is the king of the tulip. It has the
largest flower and spotted leaves. Over 500 new ornamental types of
tulip are cultivated from this plant.
One could assume that Juniper is the national tree
of Kyrgyzstan. It is always being glorified in poems and folk
literature, for its quality of unique sustainability. Juniper is often
likened to fearless powerful heroes or wise old greybeards or beautiful
slender girls. Indeed, Juniper has many aspects.
The Juniper growing in open sunny places and rich
soil is branchy and powerful. Its lower branches touch the ground and
the thick crown-like foliage lines the great conic trunk. These
resemble strong heroes. The trees growing at the bottom of a gorge or
under rocks have a pyramidal cypress-like form and resemble young
girls. The trees that grow on mountain slopes have elfin-like forms
with crooked serpentine trunks. Those with a real interest in flora who
want to discover more should travel to Kyrgyzstan. Here you can really
appreciate the wonder of nature, and admire and enjoy its extraordinary